2 THE MODERN DISTRICT. This, under any conditions, would have been justly considered an inconve- nience, and there were peculiar circumstances which rendered it exceptionally so. Tiie transfer of a very large proportion of the land from the old proprietary village communities to wealthy strangers had created a wide-spread feeling of restlessness and impatience, which was certainly intensified by the remoteness of the Courts and the consequent unwillingness to have recourse to them for the settlement of a dispute io its incipient stages. Hence the frequent occur- rence of serious outrage-, such as burglaries and highway robberies, which were often carried out with more or less impunity, notwithstanding the number of people that must have been privy to their commission. However willing the authorities of the different districts were to act in concert, investigation on the part of the police was greatly hampered by the readiness with which the crimi- nals could escape across the border and disperse themselves through the five districts of Mathura, Agra, Mainpusi, Eta, and Aligarh. Thus., though a local administrator is naturally jealous of any change calculated to diminisll the im- portance of Ms charge, and Jalcsar was unquestionably the richest portion of the district, still It was generally admitted by each successive Magistrate and Col- lector that its excliange for a tract of country with much fewer natural advan- tages would be a most politic and beneficial measure.* The matter, which had often before been under the consideration of Gov- ernment, was at last''settled towards the close of the year 1874, when Jalesar -was finally struck off from Mathora. At first it was attached to Agra ; but six years later it was again transferred and joined on to Eta, which was then raised to the rank of a fall district. !No other territory had bean given in compensa- tion till 1879, when 84 villages, constituting the pargana of Parrah, were taken from Agra and added on to the Mathura tahsili. r£he district has thus * In the first edition of this work, written before the change had been affected, I thus mm- marked the points of difference between the Jalesar and the other paig^nas:—The Jalesar pargina, affords a marked contrast to all the rest of the district, from which it differs no less is soil and scenery than in the character and social statue of the population. Xji the other slit ptrganms wheat, indigo, and rice arc seldom or nerer to be seen, here they form, the staple crops; thefts the paatnrage it abundant and every villager baa hie herd of cattle, h«re all the land U arable and DO more cattle are k«|»t than are barely enough to work the plcugfc; there the country is doited with natural woods and groves, but has no enclosed oichards, h«#e the m»g0 and other Irait trees are freely planted and thrive well, bnt there ie no jungle; there the Tillage eomuimitiei still for the most part retain poaaesaiou of their ancestral fends, here they bare been ousted almost completely by modern capitalists -t there the Jits constitute tfee great susi of the population, here they occnpy one solitary Tillage; there the Muha^msadanfl have nerer gained any permanent footicg and wery spofc is impregnated with Hindu traditions, bete what local hittorj there u U mainly'aasociatei with Muhammndan families.